This is a fantastic initiative of the Citizen Science Network Australia, which has been formed to help members of the public collect (and sometimes even analyse) data for specific projects in collaboration with scientists.
There are lots of projects going on all over Australia and of course it is up to citizens who have ideas about collecting material to come forward with more.
Currently there are 60 Citizen Science projects based in Australia. The projects are diverse; ranging from transcribing historic weather journals from the comfort of your home via Weather Detective to birding at your favourite location and entering your lists on Eremaea eBird.
This is one which I am particularly excited about because since moving to Australia I have loved to see and identify the birds in my backyard. But you don't really need to be a bird watcher or to have any skills in identifying the birds, though I am sure we can all manage a fair amount which are so familiar to us. It is all about recording what we see around us - literally in our backyard and it is as easy as one two three.